Following this tutorial, I have managed to add uniform buffers into my Vulkan graphics pipeline. Since each image in the swapchain has a different graphics pipeline object, and uniform buffers are tied to a pipeline, you end up uploading all the data three times every time it changes. OpenGL might be doing something like this under the hood, but I am not sure this is a good approach. There are three ways to get data to a shader in Vulkan. Push constants are synonymous with GLSL uniforms, although much more restrictive. Uniform buffers are the same in OpenGL, and this is where I store light data in the clustered forward renderer. Shader storage buffers are the slowest to update but they can have a very large capacity, usually as big as your entire VRAM. I have the first two working now. Below you can see a range of instanced boxes being rendered with an offset for each instance, which is being read from a uniform buffer using the instance ID as the array index.
To prove that Vulkan can render more than just boxes, here is a model loaded from GLTF format and rendered in Vulkan:
Figuring out the design of the new renderer using OpenGL was very smart. I would not have been able to invent it if I had jumped straight into Vulkan.