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  1. Internally, Leadwerks Editor uses an EventHandler class for every interface in the program. The material editor is a class extended from the EventHandler. So is the little window that has all the controls to calculate normals. So is every viewport.

    The event handler class has one important function:

    Event ProcessEvent(Event)

    Every EventHandler has access to events as they occur. This is how all program actions are handled in the editor.

    The plugin system will work by hooking into the event system. Each plugin will have a Lua script that receive events before the rest of the program sees them:

    function Script:ProcessEvent(event)
    	return event

    If the plugin makes no changes to the event then it simply returns the original event. The returned event is then sent to other event handlers.

    Here is an example of a plugin that would disable the close window button on the main window. Because the function returns nil the event is discarded before the main window ever evaluates it:

    function Script:ProcessEvent(event)
    	if == EVENT_WINDOWCLOSE and event.source == editor.mainwindow then
    		return nil
    		return event

    Here is an example of a very mean plugin that would make it so that clicking the File > Open menu item in the main window quits the program:

    function Script:ProcessEvent(event)
    	if == EVENT_MENUEVENT then
    		if event.source == editor.mainwindow then
    			if event.extra == MENU_FILEOPEN then = EVENT_WINDOWCLOSE
      	return event

    Okay, now let's see if we can design a plugin for something people would actually want. Let's imagine we have a new visual material design system. The exact details of how it works are not important, it's just a system that overrides the default material editor. The design system would require materials to have a special file associated with them with the extension .DESIGN. If you open the material "brick.mat" we will look for a file in the same folder called "". If the design file is found we open the material in our special editor. If the design file is missing we will just fall back to the default material editor.

    Now let's see how our system can handle this:

    function Script:Start()
    	--Create our interface
    	self.window = CreateWindow("Material Designer",0,0,800,600,editor.mainwindow,WINDOW_CENTER + WINDOW_TITLEBAR + WINDOW_RESIZABLE)
    function Script:ProcessEvent(event)
    		--Check for material files being opened
    		if ExtractExt(event.extra)=="mat"
    			--Look for design file
    			local designfilename = StripExt(event.extra).".design"
    			if FileType( designfilename ) == 1 then
    				--Load the design file
    				local stream = ReadFile(designfilename)
    				if stream ~= nil then
    					--Display our custom material editor
    					Print("Error: Failed to load design file.")
    				--Discard the event
    				return nil
    	return event

    As you can see, this approach is extremely powerful. The event IDs and design rarely change, if ever, so this allows a lot of flexibility and at the same time gives us the optimal compatibility as changes are made to the core editor. With this approach to plugins you can literally do anything you want in the editor.

  2. I've begun working on an implementation of voxel cone tracing for global illumination. This technique could potentially offer a way to perfrorm real-time indirect lighting on the entire scene, as well as real-time reflections that don't depend on having the reflected surface onscreen, as screen-space reflection does.

    I plan to perform the GI calculations all on a background CPU thread, compress the resulting textures using DXTC, and upload them to the GPU as they are completed. This means the cost of GI should be quite low, although there is going to be some latency in the time it takes for the indirect lighting to match changes to the scene. We might continue to use SSR for detailed reflections and only use GI for semi-static light bounces, or it might be fast enough for moving real-time reflections. The GPU-based implementations I have seen of this technique are techically impressive but suffer from terrible performance, and we want something fast enough to run in VR.

    The first step is to be able to voxelize models. The result of the voxelization operation is a bunch of points. These can be fed into a geometry shader that generates a box around each one:

    void main()
    	vec4 points[8];
    	points[0] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(-0.5f * voxelsize.x, -0.5f * voxelsize.y, -0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[1] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(0.5f * voxelsize.x, -0.5f * voxelsize.y, -0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[2] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(0.5f * voxelsize.x, 0.5f * voxelsize.y, -0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[3] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(-0.5f * voxelsize.x, 0.5f * voxelsize.y, -0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[4] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(-0.5f * voxelsize.x, -0.5f * voxelsize.y, 0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[5] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(0.5f * voxelsize.x, -0.5f * voxelsize.y, 0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[6] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(0.5f * voxelsize.x, 0.5f * voxelsize.y, 0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	points[7] = projectioncameramatrix[0] * (geometry_position[0] + vec4(-0.5f * voxelsize.x, 0.5f * voxelsize.y, 0.5f * voxelsize.z, 0.0f));
    	vec3 normals[6];
    	normals[0] = (vec3(-1,0,0));
    	normals[1] = (vec3(1,0,0));
    	normals[2] = (vec3(0,-1,0));
    	normals[3] = (vec3(0,1,0));
    	normals[4] = (vec3(0,0,-1));
    	normals[5] = (vec3(0,0,1));
    	geometry_normal = normals[0];
    	gl_Position = points[0];
    	gl_Position = points[4];
    	gl_Position = points[3];
    	gl_Position = points[7];
    	geometry_normal = normals[1];
    	gl_Position = points[1];
    	gl_Position = points[2];

    Here's a goblin who's polygons have been turned into Lego blocks.


    Now the thing most folks nowadays don't realize is that if you can voxelize a goblin, well then you can voxelize darn near anything.


    Global illumination will then be calculated on the voxels and fed to the GPU as a 3D texture. It's pretty complicated stuff but I am very excited to be working on this right now.


    If this works, then I think environment probes are going to completely go away forever. SSR might continue to be used as a low-latency high-resolution first choice when those pixels are available onscreen. We will see.

    It is also interesting that the whole second-pass reflective water technique will probably go away as well, since this technique should be able to handle water reflections just like any other material.

  3. Ok I'm finally done with my obligations to my University as a student. Now it's time to come back to game dev and finish up (hopefully) the Border Recon development. 

    While I was busy in University, I did do a bit of work on the game here and there. I added a spectator feature that allows the players to spectate others in free mode and third person while waiting to respawn after dying. Pretty cool.

    Also, I think some of us have seen the earlier changes with the style of the graphics... I changed the style of the graphics from HQ to just flat pastel colours resulting in a cartoony look in-game. I like it... requires less work on the level design details and it actually looks quite nice.

    Another thing that's cool coming in the next version: soundtracks! I found this cool soundtrack from gamedevmarket website and I think it fits perfectly to the game's theme. I'm going to work on that so I can add a bit of music to the game.

    Link to the soundtrack here:

    Also, I'm working on the muzzle flash feature for the weapons, it's half done now and it looks kick ***.

    Screenshots coming soon!

    Thanks for reading folks!




  4. I have been using Visual Studio Code for a couple of years now and it is my defacto text editor next to Notepadd++. I mainly use it however to write Lua scripts. 



    Leadwerks extension

    Personally I would love to see it if Visual Studio Code would be the default code editor for Leadwerks (either with 4.x or 5.x). So I got started on working on a custom Leadwerks extension.  You can download it here:

    Todo list:

    • Done: Leadwerks extension has a dependency on the Lua extension. So this Lua extension is automatically installed when you install the Leadwerks extension.
    • Done: Snippets. Every time you create a new script in the Leadwerks editor, you get a couple of default scripts like Function Script:Start(), UpdateWorld(), PostRender(context). Using a very simple snippet, these kind of functions can be inserted with ease.
      • prop[type] : Creates Leadwerk editor properties
      • print: Shortcut for System:Print("")
      • lescripts: Inserts all entity script functions (commented)
      • class: Creates a basic class objects with example functions
      • start: Start function of an entity script
      • updateworld: UpdateWorld function of an entity script
      • updatephysics: UpdatesPhysics function of an entity script
      • collision: Collision function of an entity script with all parameters
      • PostRender: PostRender function of an entity script with the context parameter
      • function: Creates a function for either a custom object or for the specific script
      • if
      • for
      • pair
      • ipar
    • For instance: just type 'col' followed by 1 tab and you get: 
    • function Script:Collision(entity0,entity1,position,normal,speed)


    • Partially done: Supporting intellisense (sort of) with Leadwerks entities.
      • Lua is a typeless language (not a strong typed language), which makes intellisense not really possible. 
      • VS code is smart enough to recognise some functions that are available in your script, but it is not as complete as when you would work with C# or C++.
      • Done: Generate snippets for the entire Leadwerks API. 
        • Snippets are created per object and a second one without the object. For instance
          • Entity:SetPosition()
          • SetPosition()
        • TODO: Classes with parents, would require matching functions. For instance: a pivot is an entity and thus requires Pivot:SetPosition()
      • Done: parameters into placeholder slots.
      • If I can extend the intellisense so that it recognises Leadwerks entities, perhaps we could see correct variables and functions of those entities.
    • TODO: Loading in the API documentation in a split screen. 
      • The API documentation is written in an XML format which I can retrieve in VS code. I can display it in a splitscreen. 
      • I would have to play with the styling a bit but in general this should work really fast
      • API documentation can be cached if in online mode. Documentation could also be periodically fetched. Moving the API documentation to Github would help improve this process. (newer file versions etc)
    • Debugging
      • Josh stated that he is getting someone to make this for him. So fingers crossed. :)
      • The biggest issue at the moment is the lack of debugging support. Visual studio has debugging options of course, but it can't communicate with the Leadwerks editor.
      • If you have an error in your script while running from the editor, the default Lua editor is opened. :(
  5. Hi,

    the last weeks in office are very bussy. But today i have some time to work on my project.

    In Akt 3 i  would imlement a Mortar.

    I found a nice free model that i rework in blender and exported as mdl file

    also i searched for some sounds and mixed them together.

    For the sound i use "Audacity" becaus i get some errors in leadwerks with this sound i converted sounds with "Audio online converter"

    then i work on the scirpts.

    i use some parts from einlanders grenade script. and changed the projectile script and saved it to Mortal Ammo script.

    at the moment it is a little buggy and i dont know what i have to chage. i think the problem is in this part:

                                            if bullet~=nil then												
    												Force = Vec3(0,3000,0)
                                                    if bullet.script~=nil then
                                                            bullet.script.owner = self
                                                            if type(bullet.script.Enable)=="function" then

    the bullet is not always transformed into an explosion when it hits the ground. If it hits the player, then it always works.


    here is the result. Sometimes it is funny how crazy the bullet goes. But now i have to look video with my daughter so i will work later on it. :D

    if anyone knows how i align the force at the distance of the player, about help or hints i would be glad.

    Also on a note why the bullet does not always explode on the ground, I would be glad. As always sorry for my english. By the way Act 3 is progressing. Below are a few pictures.





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    Recent Entries

    Latest Entry

    My latest entry for the Leadwerks Tournament "Dwarf Beard". This entry is really the product of a merge of a lot of work I have done over the many years.

    The code template I used goes all the way back to my first game created in Leadwerks "Mages Alchemy". The Template has seen many iterations, updates as my skills increased or I just work out a more better way of doing things. For this tournament I've made many new improvements focusing on character controls, AI and handling animations. Making both of those changes has really made the character code manageable and readable which was my focus coming back to this code from not looking at it for over a year and re-understanding it.

    Artwork taken from various graveyards of projects.

    Its playable now after a few tasks in particular are complete i'll upload the project. For now here are some action screens.



  6. Having a good set of tools is highly important. Just ask any mechanic. A good set of tools can save you a ton of time, just to prove this, try changing a water pump with a crescent wrench.

    The back story...
    There is some sort of issue with my project in GIT from the windows perspective in which it doesn't let me add source files to GIT without using the -f option. The last few months of development I haven't been creating "new" things, just working on content. This means that my new changes didn't make it into my version control

    I just recently switched to linux as my main OS. I got tired of the instability with windows. With this I started converting my Visual Studio project in to a CMake project, since that's what CLion supports.

    While working on a CMake file I wanted to test a compile change, so I decided to "make clean".

    Well some how "make clean" removed all my source files.

    Since I forgot to add a few source files to my GIT repo manually (the stuff I have been working on for the last 2 months), I was in panic mode. Researching tools in Linux to undelete a file was also difficult.

    CLion to the rescue!

    Luckily I started up CLion on my project as I use the Jetbrains Suite at work, I figured I should also try it at home. CLion maintained its own local history of my project. With a few clicks of the mouse I could go back and undo the delete.

    So for any of you making games in a commercial sense, maybe $650 for a good IDE is a small price to pay for saving your *** some day

  7. Luawerks has been updated to easily transform any game into a Seated VR compatible one. All what's needed is the application to be launched with "-vr". All what has been added is the tweak discussed here

    While Luawerks isn't really ideal for Room scale VR, seated on the other hand works better. The center tracking call gets called every time the game gets unpaused. At this time, the UI doesn't work with VR. Keep in-mind that there might be some tweaking to your game to make it 100% VR compatible. For example, if you launch the FPS template map in VR, the bullets should be based on where the player is looking not the mouse position. Don't want have VR? No problem, this only effects the core files (Window, System, Time) and has no other changes to the UI. VR mode is just a bonus. Of course, you can force it to always boot into VR mode.

    About Luawerks

    Luawerks is a Lua framework for video games developed on the Leadwerks Game Engine. It supplies developers with additional functions, handles the game loop and allows them to debug their code with a developers console. With all that out of the way, you can focus on making your game fun!

    You can purchase Luawerks from the Leadwerks Workshop Store for $9.99.

    For documentation and bug reporting, please visit the GitHub page.

  8. I have made a small class for helping with reading and writing parameters between C++ and LUA and also calling LUA functions from C++. I'm sharing this little thing here.




    Using the class is quite simple as shown below


    LUA - part



    C++ - part



    I have included is a test project which looks like this in the editor



    And like this when executed



    Here is the LuaBridge class source




    And the complete test project


    Note: Its says 'Click for next test', should be 'Hit Spacebar for next test'

  9. I upgraded to Leadwerks 4.5 beta.

    And lots of the errors seen below:

    error C2872: 'byte': ambiguous symbol


    This worked for me and solved the issue:

    In Project Properties -> Language -> C/C++ set The C++ Language Standard to  ISO C++14 Standard (/std:c++14)

  10. Welcome dear reader to my first Blog entry. In the following you will get a first impression of what I am working on. So lets not lose any more time and get started!:)

    What is the Phodex Framework?

    The Phodex Framework is created with the intention to provide common systems and mechanics to be able to create cool first person and especially role playing games within the Leadwerks Game Engine.

    "Leadwerks Game Engine is the easiest way to make 3D games." and "It's everything you need to make games, all in one place."

    With the Phodex Framework it try to also follow the general idea of Leadwerks, accessibility, simplicity and power.

    What does the Phodex Framework provide?

    Ok now lets get more specific. Here just a few things the Framework consist of:

    • Highly intelligent AI System based on Goal Oriented Action Planning (GOAP)
    • Userfriendly design and focus on accessibility and simplicity
    • High costumization for all systems
    • Questcreation System
    • Different behaviors and designs for nearly every system of the Framework
    • First person player controller with all you need
    • Full-Blown combat system for melee and rangeweapons
    • "Character Set" which lets you costumize every NPC (Combat Style, Behavior, Attributes, Animations, ...)
    • External tools like the Questcreator and Charactercreator to improve accessibility
    • Many common systems, like dialogs, inventories, questlog, levelsystem and more

    There is much more planned and this list does, of course, not go into detail, but now you can at least imagine what my plan is.

    How far is the development?

    I am worked on this since about one year and five months now and I can finally say that the Phodex Framework is finished. I cut off some features and as you may have noticed the direction the framework has changed from beeing a jack of all trades towards a framework for a very specific task, creating FPS and RPG games.

    Finished in this manner, does not really mean the work is done, I still will improve many systems and will implement some new ones, but the Framework now generally consists of all it needs to get started.

    Ok enough talk, lets show some stuff. Thank you for reading so far :) this is your reward:




    Of course this is not the final product I imagine, its just some stuff I put together in some lazy afternoons :D, but I tought it would be unfair to remain you without any visual impressions :). The models are from an assetpack I recently bought and as well are not final and are just a placeholder. Anyway I think the scene looks pretty atmospheric :).

    About me:

    My name is Markus and I am the head of Phodex Games. I am very glad to be able to study "Digital Media", which includes many topics relevant for game development. Besides design and art I am also very interested in technical stuff and therefore studied "Electrical Engeneering" for a while, which I am very glad for as it helped me understanding many of the technical aspects of computers, coding and ultimately in games. This is my second gamedev related project and I really love what I am doing and are passionated to create something good.

    My aim is to provide the best possible product, I can achieve and to help people by providing games which make them feel good :).


    If you have any ideas, suggestions, or wishes of what you would like to see in the Framework, feel free to tell me in the comments.

    If you find any errors, feel free to tell me, as english is not my native language. I wish you a wonderful day and stay cool :cool: .

    Markus from Phodex

  11. There is a problem with the default TextArea.lua widget script.
    Your game will crash when you click on an empty TextArea.

    look for the Function "Script:GetCaretCoord(caret)"

    local text = self.lines[self.currentline]--self.widget:GetText()


    if text == nil then return 0 end



    More will be added when/if discovered...

  12. Hello Leadwerks Forum its me again. The guy who releases too early

    Theres going to be a new game inspired by the Polybius pasta in the player soon. I just wanted to explain the core mechanics of the game and why it is more important than my free time. For some time, I have developed games on other Engines but the tournament got me back to my haven again ,where I am the most confident with my skills. This is why I can try new or more absurd game Ideas like an "intense psychoactive and addictive" effect provoking retro game. But with less focus on the "psycho" and more on the caffeine effect :D. Of course I run into problems because leadwerks is not made for this wireframe look or twodimensional games, so I dropped it already :(... Just kidding, (no really I did but troughout the day more fixes came to my mind) - like using transparent images for rendering them instead of trying to make a skybox background which itself is also wire... you get the idea.


    THE GAME !:

    The game is split into multiple minigames.All have the feeling of an arcade or retro game from the 80's , but who am I to know how they really were like :). For example, if you "loose" at one of these, it automatically switches to the next endless minigame which gets harder and harder with more movement and colors. One of these games, which will hopefully playable at the end of the tournament is almost done to its core. Its an wormhole simulator in which the player travels with a spaceship and needs to gather blue cristals which differ from other objects that you are not allowed to hit: (outdated)



  13. Playing with fractals ideas, I obtain this, just look until the end !



    Here more space game art:









    hope you enjoyed!

  14. Restarted my networking framework yet again. This time I gave it a new name 'Hexe'. The old name was 'Overwatch'. It was named long before the Overwatch game came out. It was based off the Half-Life Overwatch. It oversaw the players, ai spawning, contained a secondary path-finding system, but had no networking as it was not native to the LUA side of Leadwerks. 'Hexe' is German for 'witch'. I don't really know why I chose the name but I have the feeling I will be able to put it to good use. Maybe I'll even mix in some Anglish into it.

    This restart occurred because the framework became too cumbersome. I had the entity synchronization working correctly, but it did not differentiate between player and an object in the world. That wasn't really that bad, what made messed it up was that a lobby system and teams were needed and there was no space to squeeze any other components into the mix.

     This rewrite will focus on the player/client and foremost. The components that are currently being written or are complete are:

    • The server browser.
      • This was a side project created out of necessity. I did not want to have to hard code the ip every time.
      • Anytime I wanted to test multiple clients I had to change the code depending on which computer was running the server. 
      •  PITFALL: Since Leadwerks does not expose the servers local ip address via code, you will need to get it manually from you computer, or use some creative workarounds
    • Network Manager
      • Hexe is split up between a server class and a client class. Both classes use a network manager class that can automatically handle hosting or connecting to a server. The network manager currently handles the handshake and the beginnings of the lobby system.
      • When a client joins it initiates and handles the handshake between the server and client. It also raises events so the server or client can react accordingly if need be. After the handshake is completed, the network manager starts the lobby system
    • The connection handshake.
      • This is was saved from the last version. It makes sure the server and client are using the same protocol version. It will then register the client on the server and give it an incremental number (similar to the source engine) that allows the client state to be manipulated    
    • The Lobbying system:
      • This is completely new. After the handshake is complete, it will send a command launching the lobbying system. The network manager only makes sure that a client is in the servers lobby and nothing more. The client and server manually handle the team creation and player switching on their own.
      •  Teams are not part of the network manager because it would require large amounts of rewrites depending on the type of game being created.

    When the lobbying system is complete the client input will be added. So far things are going well and maybe soon I wont be staring at console output for feedback.

  15. This is a simple prototype of what will be the entrance to the underground pipeline. The idea was to test things, such as getting more familiar with the construction of infrastructures in the Leadwerks engine.

    I have to say that this is what seems to me most tedious, moving cubes, scaling them, copying them, putting textures etc etc. And it is when I understand that a game, can not do a single person, if not an equpo of people each with their specific task. So I will go into polishing details of this prototype model.


  16. GorzenDev
    Latest Entry

    Finished and added Field functionality meaning its now possible to set the Fields for each widget.
    for example the style for a button (Push,Link,Checkbox), or backgroundcolor for panels etc.

    below is a screenshot of the fields in action


    Next will be finishing support for custom widgets which i already started on as you can see in the screenshot above(colorlabel).

    At the moment the way to add your custom widgets is a 3 step process.

    First step is adding the widget name to the config.ini like


    Next is adding a type_file with content like so

    ;allow other widgets to use this as a parent
    ;allow addItem
    ;location of the widget script in your leadwerks project - only used while exporting
    ;location of the widget script for this editor
    ;default size
    ;amount of 'extras' defined

    And last but not least you need to edit a copy of your script and disable any EventQueue::Emit events,
    and add some mouseMove,mousDown,mouseUp events for the editor to interact with the widget.


    So a custom widget colorlabel would look like this when exported.

    //GUI Editor Generated
    #include "MenuClass.h"
    MenuClass::MenuClass(Context* context)
        gui = GUI::Create(context);
        Panel = Widget::Create("", 0, 0, 1024, 100, gui->GetBase(), "Scripts/GUI/Panel.lua");
        Panel->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        Button = Widget::Create("Template", 81, 38, 150, 20, Panel, "Scripts/GUI/Button.lua");
        Button->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        Button1 = Widget::Create("Template", 338, 38, 150, 20, Panel, "Scripts/GUI/Button.lua");
        Button1->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        ColorLabel = Widget::Create("colorlabel", 710, 39, 80, 20, Panel, "Scripts/GUI/ColorLabel.lua");
        ColorLabel->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        ColorLabel->SetObject("bordercolor", new Vec3(1,0,0,0));
        ColorLabel->SetObject("textcolor", new Vec3(0,0,1,1));
        Panel1 = Widget::Create("", 342, 328, 300, 200, gui->GetBase(), "Scripts/GUI/Panel.lua");
        Panel1->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        Panel1->SetObject("backgroundcolor", new Vec3(0.2,0.2,0.2,1));
        Button2 = Widget::Create("exit", 80, 156, 150, 20, Panel1, "Scripts/GUI/Button.lua");
        Button2->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        Button3 = Widget::Create("options", 77, 98, 150, 20, Panel1, "Scripts/GUI/Button.lua");
        Button3->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
        Button4 = Widget::Create("load", 76, 33, 150, 20, Panel1, "Scripts/GUI/Button.lua");
        Button4->SetAlignment(false, false, false, false);
    bool MenuClass::ProcessEvent(Event event)
        if ( == Event::WidgetAction)
        return true;
    bool MenuClass::Update()
        return true;


  17. In my other blog ( I talked about the component architecture I was using. I've since teamed up with Roland on this idea and together we have fleshed it out more. It's not 100% ready to be released yet but I realized that we've come a long way and that where we are today might seem confusing to someone if they weren't along for the ride. So I thought I'd use this blog to start down the journey we went on.

    The main goal for our journey was as follows:

    - Components will NEVER depend on other components. Decoupling as much as possible was priority #1. So the idea of events and actions(functions) is still at the core of the system. Now components need to work together obviously but the lowest level of dependencies the system has is via the arguments that events send along to actions. If you're hooking an action to an event you need to know what args that    event is sending you. This is primitive data vs classes and it's as decoupled as you can get while still allowing interactions between components.

    One day Josh asked about coroutines and if anyone knew anything about them. I've used coroutines in the past so I replied and did some examples (still need to finish that for him). Then one day on my way home from work it hit me. Since we have a common communication method in having actions (functions) being called from events we had a centralized place where all component actions (functions) were being called (the event class). This meant incorporating coroutines into our system was simple. Thanks to Roland for fleshing the idea out, all component actions are now coroutines automatically created (no work on the component creator's part). This was very exciting as it meant action functionality that required sequential coding could be done right in the action directly. This helped eliminate the need for most components needing an update() method that might not be doing anything except in certain situations. Situations that are now all handled in an action itself. It also meant a lot less state variables were needed to manage this sequential code. Roland had a doAddHealth() action where he instantly added the value passed in to the players health. This resulted in a snapping of the UI to the new health value. While that clearly works and you can do it that way, the test of our system was to make that health slowly increase to the final value over time, giving it a nice visual animation of increasing health. We were able to do it directly in that doAddHealth() function with about 2-3 more lines of code. It was insanely easy and much more logical in nature. Roland had never used coroutines before and he was able to get it working in a couple mins because it's just very logical and intuitive to work with when you don't have to deal with the details of the coroutine setup and management. You simple work with coroutine.yield() inside your action and that's all you really need to understand. This is an idea I'd like to see Josh think about with normal LE script functions as I think it can make life easier. Tim and I are working on a turn based game. Everything in the game is basically a sequence of actions over time so this idea of all actions are coroutines has been HUGE for our game. More on that at the end of Aug.

    Entity to Entity Communication!

    We fleshed out the entity to entity communication. My last blog talked about component communication with other components inside the same entity (the event system). This works great because all the components are inside the same entity and can access each others events and actions to hook up. But how can a component in entity A do something because a component in entity B wants it to, without those components knowing anything about each other? It was a challenge to get the right idea for this. We wanted to stay with the idea of events for this but we also didn't want entities to know about each other's internals.Decoupling of entities is important or else you end up with dependency hell and tigh coupling. We ended up with giving entities a SendMessage() function and an onReceiveMessage event. So from entity B we can hook up one of it's components events to the entity action SendMessage. The arguments for these required 2 special variables. Dest and Message. Dest is the entity to send the Message to. To get the Dest entity you're component is doing some kind of picking or GetNeighbors(). Dest can be 1 entity or a table of entities. On the receiving entity(s) the onReceiveMessage event is raised so that you can hook it's component actions to a received message. So all communication is done via the event system in some way.

    This introduced 2 needed features to our event system. When you get an event onReceiveMessage is raised no matter what event you got. However you'd only want certain events to trigger certain component actions. This requires some kind of routing of string messages to actions being called. We did this currently with a filter function on the event's subscribe() method. When the event is raised and a filter function exists it'll call the function passing in the arguments of the event and if the function returns true, raise call the action method. If false it wont call the action method. So generally what you do is pass a function that checks the args.Message for the value you want to call the action.

    self.onReceiveMessage:subscribe(self.healthComponent, self.healthComponent.doHurt, function(args)
            if args.Message == "hurt" then
                return true
            return false

    In the above event hookup when the Message is "hurt" then we hook it up to our healthComponent doHurt action. Because this is a very common thing to do, it can be bloated to have to define the function that does exactly this but for different string messages, you can just pass a string instead of a function to make it more streamlined:

    self.onReceiveMessage:subscribe(self.healthComponent, self.healthComponent.doHurt, "hurt")

    As you can see communication is NOT done inside the component. We didn't want components handling communication. We view component functionality and how that functionalty is communicated as 2 different types of coding. Communication is done inside the event hookups and functionality is done inside the component. Because of this and staying with the SendMessage/onReceiveMessage idea, we introduced another idea to the event subscribe() function. Another callback that is called before the action is fired. This also passes in the args and exists to let you modify the args before the action is called. This is used mostly when hooking a component event to SendMessage so that at that point you can give the string Message value. This way the component itself isn't concerning itself with the message which helps keep it more generic. This makes communication implementation specific to YOUR game and not the component. The component is just doing it's ONE job and raising events. That's it. What that means to your game is up to you to code. An example of this is:

    -- nil is the routing/filter function we talked about above which we don't need because we are sending out not receiving in
    self.inputComponent.onPicked:subscribe(self, self.SendMessage, nil, function(args)
            args.Message = "use"

    The inputComponent will raise an onPicked event when an entity is picked by left clicking. It doesn't care what you want to do with that. That's your part of coding your game and is game specific. It will fill in the args.Dest value with the entity but we need a place outside the component to specify what we want our message to be for our game. The supplied function does just that. It let's us create the Message variable on the args and fill it in. On the receiving side then it's up to us to hook up to that entities components when the message is "use" like above in the onReceiveMessage examples. This idea of 2 types of coding I think really helps create more separation and isolation of code which helps with maintainability and reusability. If components were to define the Message value inside then their influence starts to leak out as another component needs to be programmed to deal with that exact Message. We don't want that. We want the messages to be game specific and decided on by the user of the component system not the component creators. There is an alternative syntax to the above code where instead of a function you can specify a table. This table will be merged into the args parameter.

    self.inputComponent.onPicked:subscribe(self, self.SendMessage, nil, { Message = "use" })

    So to summarize entity communication, when sending messages the arguments callback function (or table that gets merged) is useful. When receiving messages the filter/routing callback function (or string message) is useful.

    Cool Side Effects!

    And interesting side effect to to the event system is that they are raised in the order they were subscribed to. You can use that to your advantage if you want to modify the args in any way between multiple components. Tim and I use this concept in our game. When we get a "hurt" message come into a character entity we first pass it through a Stats component which stores information about the player armor and other defenses. The args has a value property on it that is how much damage we should take, but by first running through our Stats component we can reduce that value by our armor. The 2nd component it's hooked up to is the health component which will reduce our health by the value property but now it's less because our Stats component reduced it. Since args is a table and tables are passed by reference the change to an args property in one component is visible to subsequent components.


    Having a common communication protocol between components and entities has been a big help in structuring my code for maintainability, adding new features, and reusability. One of the benefits of Lua is that table properties can be accessed via their string name. So something you might notice about event hookups to actions given knowing that Lua table properties can be accessed via string names, is that hooking up events is really just configuration. Even though the above examples is code that code can be made very generic where the property names are string values stored in a file. For example the above inputComponent hookup is the same as:

    self["inputComponent"]["onPicked"]:subscribe(self, self["SendMessage"], nil, { Message = "use" })

    Because it's a common structure all event hookups follow the same pattern. So imagine this information is coming from a json file and that json file is built from a visual editor. You would code your components in a code editor but hookup your components in a visual editor as you select the event source, event, action source and action from drop down menus. Thanks to Roland, we will have more to come on that in the next few months...


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    Main post available here


    I first presented my PBR work about a year ago, since then I've been tweaking and making improvements.


    Over the past 6 months Leadwerks has had some great updates for graphics junkies like me tongue.png .The HDRi and environment probe features look great and have helped with 2 of the main issues with the last PBR system. Now what you see in the editor is what you get in the game, and HDR means proper tonemapping and a wider range of possible light intensities. Both of which are important for realistic PBR.


    I currently plan on using this for my current project, so expect consistent updates as I battle test it.

    The current build is available on github. Any issues and suggestions to help improve it are welcome.







    Limitations / improvements

    • Requires a gamma-correction post process shader. Not a huge issue, adding a pp is pretty easy but still something to remember.
    • Currently the built in environment probes are stored in a low dynamic range. This leads to clamping and precision errors as HDR values move towards extremes. this limits the usefulness of HDR. This is an engine issue.
    • Probes also use simple mipmapping for different roughness values, PBR often performs a convolution on stored cube-maps to better match reflection blurring due to roughness. A fix may be possible for this, but would require C++.




  18. Hi! It has been a while. Here's an update on my networking library EvayrNet which is available for C++ users of Leadwerks:


    While implementing it into the test project in Leadwerks, I saw that the use case had some flaws which made it really hard to debug what's going on. I figured that I should be spending some time on fixing some flaws. After a few weeks I came up with the following upgrades:

    1. Debugging class
    2. Simulation mode
    3. More debugging information available

    Here's some detailed explanation:


    Debugging class

    I was using a lot of "printf" before which made it hard to:

    • Find out where it's being called
    • Disable whenever I don't need it anymore

    This is when I decided to make a debugging class. I replaced the printf with a custom Print function which allows you to do the same as before - except you can disable any kind of printing whenever you want (like during release builds).


    I also realized that capturing data is a pretty cool feature to have, which makes it easier to visualize the data you want to debug. For that I created a SaveText function which accepts a string and a filename as arguments so you can separate data like "Pings per interval", "Bytes sent per second", etc.


    Here is an example what you can do with it:



    Simulation mode

    This is an interesting one that I just had to implement. A connection cannot always perfect, and it can be hard to always expect a good outcome (while you might not notice it because of your tests on localhost). This is why I introduced the manipulation of the following networking stats:

    1. Minimum latency (in ms)
    2. Random latency (in ms)
    3. Packet drop percentage
    4. Packet duplication percentage

    It's also very easy to activate and deactivate. All you have to do is NetworkManager::StartSimulation(...) and StopSimulation(). Here is it in the command line when you activate it:



    More debugging information available

    At last I added more ways to debug the network statistics to really see what is going on. Are you not receiving data anymore? Are you flooding the network? The following information is now ready to be displayed:

    • Newest ping (either to the server or from a specific client)
    • Average ping (this as well^)
    • Incoming amount of packets per second
    • Outgoing amount of packets per second
    • Packets per second lost
    • Incoming data per second (in bytes)
    • Outgoing data per second (in bytes)
    • Current active connections (primarily for the server)

    That's... quite a lot more than before! Previously you could only see if you're connected and if you're the server. I hope this information will make it easier for users to visualize traffic and debug any problems they might be having. And of course, you can mix this up with the debugging class to make cool graphs like above!


    Final words

    I'm still planning on making some extra information, like on specifics to see what kind of message is creating the amount of bytes send/received. This should help debugging even more. Other than that there are still some enhancements I'd like to put in such as encryption. These can be seen here.


    I hope you liked this blog post! Next time I will probably be showing how to implement EvayrNet into your C++ Leadwerks project, so you can toy around with it. wink.png

  19. It should be great if you can create a game world which has exact real-life object's dimensions. If you are using Blender to make game props for Leadwerks, these are some simple steps to help you archive the dimension match up.

    Step 1:

    • In Blender, go to Properties panel > Scene tab > Unit group
    • Choose "Meters" from list.
    • Make sure Length = Metric, Angle = Degree, Unit scale = 1

    Step 2:

    • This step is optional but can make you feel better with grid floor
    • In 3D View, Press N to open Properties region > Display group
    • Change Lines = 256, Scale = 0.1
    • From now on, you can adjust object's dimensions parameters in Properties region to match real-life dimensions, it will be the dimensions when you import models into Leadwerks.
    • Don't for get to Apply Transformation for object model, it is important. Do this before adjust object's dimensions. In blender Use Ctrl + A > Location / Rotation & Scale


    Step 3: Fbx export

    • Menu File > Export > Fbx
    • Choose Version = FBX 7.4 binary
    • Scale = 0.01


    Step 4: Adjust exported model in Leadwerks Game Editor

    • Double click mdl file in Assets Explorer to open it in model editor.
    • Menu Tools > Collapse. This make sure model local rotation is correct.
    • Menu Files > Save.

    I attached my template .blend file below this post. It included a 1.7m height human model for better reference.

    Leadwerks Blender

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    Ive decided to plan better and fix milestones so i can actually finish this game, the main problem is lack of time.But i have patience.


    I got a domain and in the process to setup a website and a blog.The plan is to have a small release every 15 days.

    Will see how it goes, it would be nice to work full time on this but not possible at this time, still have to go to work for a living.


    Currently im about to finish a somewhat starcraft like resource gathering mechanic.

    A mine has a 1 transporter that gather resources from asteroids.

    I limited to just 1 resource transporter per mine so that the user has incentive to expand (build mines) for more resources.


    Will come back with a movie.


    For development stuff i want to say Object::GetAddress method is great.

    Besides the debugger, really helped to investigate some strange crashes.





  20. blog-0568459001486305707.jpg

    One More Day - Performance Updates


    So it’s been a while since my last blog update on One More Day but recently I had a look to see if I could do anything with improving the performance of the game. As it turns out there were still some optimisations to be made that have helped boost performance.


    V0.1.6 on the Game Launcher


    Here are the main performance related changes I’ve made which were recently published to the Game Launcher:

    1. I changed some of the furniture models to lower poly versions. Some of these models were about 3000polys and are now replaced with lower poly versions with no real visual difference in-game. So about 10 or so models that were repeated more than once around the level were shaved in poly detail by about a third.
    2. I halved the draw distance on camera range and increased the fog a bit to compensate. I believe this helped more for when you are some distance outside the town but less so when you are in the town.
    3. I removed some rogue geometry in the map (wasn’t much), and also a few objects that weren’t really needed.
    4. I went back over every object to ensure it’s viewing range was as minimal as I could afford without creating too much pop-up. This is something I have always done but still sometimes you end up missing a few things.
    5. I spaced out some detailed areas on the map (ie. the power station got moved out further) to try to reduce the number of objects being shown at any one time.
    6. I made sure physics shapes set in model viewer were as simple as possible and removed collision from some small objects.
    7. I removed some workshop objects that had very big textures.


    All these changes stacked on to the latest version of Leadwerks which also includes performance improvements have given a noticeable performance improvement to the game.


    One thing I had to add in (sparingly) was some grass using the vegetation system as I felt it added nice detail to the level and was worth a small performance hit. That’s what makes optimising the game hard, trying to balance between good visuals, content and good performance. Unfortunately sometimes sacrifices have to be made. But even with the grass added the new version is running better than before. I would like to add volumetric spot lights for light coming in the windows but for now I resist that temptation as they would add up to a significant performance hit. Maybe I will add them as a high graphics option in the future.


    Other Improvements


    As well as performance improvements the game download size is now smaller thanks to the newly added ogg support and also removal of some unused files that were being published. One thing I noticed when publishing a game in Leadwerks is that if you have files with the same filename in two different folders both files will be packaged even if only one of them is used. So there were some unneeded texture files etc. being packaged from unused workshop content. Going forward I will have to keep an eye out for duplicate filenames.


    More performance in the works


    The following changes are in my current dev build which hasn’t been released yet but are showing even more performance increases:


    1. Converted the CSG houses and bungalows to models. Simplifying and reducing object/entity count. This should allow me to add more houses to the map with less of a performance impact.
    2. Further reduced the camera range and increased the fog to compensate. This allows me to reduce the view range on many bigger outdoor objects and buildings from Max to Far whilst minimizing popup and also reduce the vegetation view range. This will result in a much more foggy look to the game (see screenshot) which will create a slightly different atmosphere than previous versions and with less viewing distance it might make approaching zombies a bit more dangerous.
    3. I identified SSAO was making quite a performance impact so I have disabled this for now and might re-introduce it as a high graphics option when I get around to creating an options menu. For outdoor map SSAO is probably not as important or worth the hit but it is nice to have when inside the buildings.


    After all these performance improvements and v1.7 is released I am optimistic that most people should get at least a 30fps game experience with OMD. Fingers crossed!

  21. After going radio silent for a week I return with some really, really good news.


    First and foremost, the last level of the first episode is finished, I'm currently testing it out and seeing if I can break it before I upload a beta build to steam. After a couple days of it being there, if there aren't any issues, I will be launching the game on february 10th. Yes, you can quote me on that.



    I have to tell you though, making this level was not easy at all, I had so many ideas that never saw the light of day, but I hope that the way I created things work out for the better and I hope to use those scrapped ideas in the future someway.


    So here's a bit of information for the last level for those of you who've been wanting to play it:


    There's a way to kill the demon.

    There's a way to escape without killing him.

    The last level has 5 different variations depending on what you do.



    It goes without saying that there are multiple endings for what happens when you finish the last level as well, but I'll leave that for you to find out.





    That's it for now! I've probably already said too much so I hope you'll like what's in store for you.

  22. It's finally done!


    You can find it here on the workshop:


    And now i'm going to share a bit about the progress of the last few weeks, stick around if you like :)


    I'm so glad i made it in time, there were still a few "optional" things i would've loved to add (like a final boss wave) but due some in real complications (losing my phone..) and overal internship time consumption i still managed to get quite a game here!


    I am pretty proud of it too, might sound silly for such small game but it's my second game that i marked as "complete"! Also special thanks to my wife for creating all the model textures & GUI textures!


    For both me and my wife it was the first time we actual worked with 3D models (creating them from scratch and texturing them from scratch) this was quite a cool experience, i'm really glad with the results

    and i got more experienced in the tools i can use to make things look nice without too much complications.


    I personally think the cartoon-ish style was a great start for the modeling / texturing matter as this are my first proper game models that i build from scratch like mentioned above. I did have a small glimpse and trying to add bones, but i personally left it aside for now as i didn't really need them and i wanted to invest my time more in the game to reach the finish line.


    Overal in general, the progression went smooth (sometimes a stupid mistake like uppercase instead of lowercase.. You know the deal hehe), this was also my first time actual creating a wave system which i enjoyed a lot! I must say, tweaking & balancing each wave was harder then i honestly expected at first but i think i found quite a balance :)


    I don't really know what more to add haha, perhaps writting this after a day programming session wasn't the best idea.


    Thanks for reading and i hope you guys enjoy the game as much as i did creating it!

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